How to write a literary agent query letter

Query letters matter. A typical literary agent in New York or London will see approximately 2000 manuscripts a year, and may take on just 1-2 new authors. Of the 2,000 manuscripts submitted, the majority (say at least 1750) will be rejected very quickly, because of errors in the query letter or synopsis.

The template your letter needs to follow is simple.

The basic query letter template

  1. Start with a short 1-2 sentence intro.
    You need to say why you’re writing (“I am seeking representation for my first novel,” for example). You need to say what you’ve written (“The Raven Ship”), and you need to define that book speedily in terms of genre and wordcount, (“A Viking-era historical novel of 90,000 words”.) Keep that first paragraph short.
  2. Then add 1-2 paragraphs about the book.
    You aren’t delivering a back-jacket sales blurb, here, but nor are you writing a synopsis. Rather, you are helping the agent to understand two things.
    (A) a little more about the settings / characters / premise / theme of the book. You’re helping them to understand WHAT the book is.
    (B) You are also helping them to understand WHY this book is special. In effect, you’re explaining what emotional payoff the book is going to deliver – nd whatever hook or angle is going to make this book stand out.
    This total section of your letter shouldn’t run to much more than 150-200 words. Less than that is fine. Remember that your synopsis will cover the plot in detail (so your letter doesn’t need to do so.) And remember that your letter is really just an introduction to your manuscript; it doesn’t need to be more than that.
  3. Then say something brief about yourself.
    Say 1 or 2 short sentences about who you are and (if it’s relevant) you can say something about how you came to write the book. Agents don’t care if you haven’t been published before, so that’s not something you need to feel nervous about, or apologise for. If you have (for example) won a major short story prize, or have been a pro journalist, etc, then say so. But it’s OK if you have nothing to say along those lines. Agents know that debut writers are . . . well, making their debut. No need to apologise for inexperience!

You can read a complete sample query letter here, so you can see exactly how to lay one out and get a feel for what it should look like.

The secret to getting an agent

What are they really looking for?

Rules for writing a query letter that sells

But you can’t just robotically follow a template and hope to get things right.

Remember that you are seeking to earn money as a professional writer and that means that agents will – quite correctly – scrutinise your work to see if you are properly in control of your craft. A badly written query letter (or covering letter) will flash a red warning that this writer is not yet ready to be published.

So take care!

The following rules pick out the errors that we see most commonly – and we look at hundreds of query letters every year. Some of those letters are really great. Other ones . . . not so great. But this is not a hard thing to get right, so do put the work in.

Guidelines for the perfect query letter

1. No obvious errors

No howlers, no spelling mistakes, no saying it’s when you mean its, no calling your book a fiction novel when it’s just a novel. (All novels are fiction.)

Oh, and check the spelling of the name of the agent you’re writing to. I promise you that if an agent is called Jon or Sara, it will bug them every single time they get a letter addressed to John or Sarah.

It’s not hard to get these things right, so check once – then check again.

2. No bad sentences

Here’s a slightly different issue, but an equally important one.

Plenty of query letters don’t have errors as such, but they still give off plentiful indicators that the writer is a little clumsy in expressing themselves. Here’s what I mean:

This novel, which is the first one I have written, is called The Adventures of Baby Jane, and I would say it falls into the genre of fantasy, or maybe even chick-lit.

That’s a hideous sentence, but it doesn’t have spelling mistakes or grammatical errors in it. It’s not just about avoiding howlers. It’s also about writing well.

3. Brevity

Keep your letter to a page. It doesn’t need to be longer than that. If your entire letter runs to 300 words, it could probably lose at least 50 words.

The exceptions? Well, yes, there are always exceptions. Of these, I’d say the three most frequent are:

  • An agent specifically asks for a longer letter on their website submission requirements. (This is uncommon)
  • You are writing non-fiction, in which case you will need (a) to set out the case for your book in a little detail and (b) you’ll need to say something about why you are the right person to write it. Even here, I would say that 2 pages should be sufficient for almost any submission.
  • You are writing literary fiction, in whichcase it’s common to say a little more about the themes of your work and why those themes echo with you particularly. Again, 2 pages should  be the absolute maximum here, and if your letter only runs to a single page, that’s nothing at all to worry about.

4. Introduce the book

I generally recommend a sentence or two at the start of the letter which summarises the key data: the title, the genre, the word count, the rough thrust of the story. Then a longer paragraph about the book. You don’t need to summarise the plot – the synopsis will do that – but you do need to say what the book is about. That could be about setting, about theme, about period. Whatever matters most.

5. Don’t say much about yourself

No one cares about you. They care about the book, so a sentence or two is fine. Keep it short. If you’ve got a proper publishing track record, then say so, but it doesn’t matter if you don’t. If you’ve just published articles in the parish magazine, don’t share it. Agents don’t care. The two exception to this rule:

  • if you are writing subject-led non-fiction and you are an acknowledged expert on the topic, then make that clear.
  • If you are writing fiction and there is a clear, interesting link between your background and the subject of the novel, then say so. For example, “The climactic scenes in the novel are set in the Karakoram mountains of Pakistan. I have extensive experience of mountaineering in this area, and have indeed made the first recorded ascents of three 7,000 metre summits in the region.” You’d want to read that book, right? And of course it’s easier for a publisher to publicise a book where the author has interesting, relevant background to draw on, so it’s worth making these things clear.

6. Don’t get cute

Most jokes don’t work. Lavish grovelling is pointless. ‘I will call you in two weeks to discuss’: no. This will have the opposite effect of impressing an agent. This is a business letter, so keep it business-like. In the US, you can be a little pushier, a bit more sales-y. In the UK, it’s better to play it straight.

7. Remember what the query letter is there to do

All the letter is there to do is encourage the agent to read the opening page of the manuscript. If that page looks good, the agent will read the first chapter. If he or she likes the first chapter, then they’ll read on, but the query letter is just the very start. No one will make up their mind from a query letter. Your letter needs to get the agent interested enough in the idea to make a start on the manuscript itself. It’s not hard to write a decent query letter. It’s very hard to write a decent manuscript – and that’s where the game is really won or lost.

Feel daunted? Need more help?

It’s OK if you do. Writing and publishing are difficult, and it can be hard to get the right support, and the right training.

But did you know that Jericho Writers is a club for people exactly like you? We were founded by writers for writers, and we have a huge heap of resources completely free to members. Those resources include:

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We built our club for writers like you, and we’d love it if you joined us. Find more about us here, and we look forward to welcoming you soon.

Completing the submission package

Take a wonderful query letter, add a perfect synopsis, and …

OK, so now you know how to write a query letter. It’s not hard and, assuming you can write a half-decent novel, then writing a decent query letter should be easy-peasy.

But you need to team that with a synopsis to complete your submission package.

I’m not going to talk in detail about writing a synopsis now – but you can get a detailed guide on writing a synopsis here – but suffice to say:

  • A synopsis should summarise the story of your book
  • The language should be neutral rather than salesy
  • Unless an agent specifically asks for something different, you should aim to prepare a synopsis of about 500 words. That will typically run to about a page and a half of normally laid out text.
  • You don’t need to cram every plot detail into your synopsis. Or, to be precise, you can’t cram every plot detail into your synopsis.
  • Instead, you want to hang your synopsis around the basic structure of your book: Status Quo / Initiating Incident / Developments / Climax / Resolution. You’ll find that the “Developments” section of the synopsis skates over a lot of specifics, but that’s fine – that’s  your synopsis doing its job!

If you want more (and you do) you can get it here.

Happy writing, and happy agent-hunting!


About the author

Harry Bingham has been a professional author for twenty years and more. He’s been published by each of the three largest publishers in the world. He’s hit bestseller lists, had a ton of critical acclaim, and has been published in the US, the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, Japan . . . and lots of other places too. His work has been adapted for the screen and he’s enjoyed (almost) every minute of his career. (More about Harry, more about his books).

As head of Jericho Writers (and previously the Writers’ Workshop), Harry has helped hundreds of people find agents and get published. He’d love it if you were next. (More about us.)